Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.5 km2 (3.1 to 5.2 sq mi), situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. Tenochtitlan liegt im Tal des Mondsees, welches von den nördlichen Ausläufern der Aztekische Anden umrahmt wird und zu den niederschlagsreichsten Regionen des Landen zählt. Tenochtitlan was one of two Mexica āltepētl (city-states or polities) on the island, the other being Tlatelolco. large home or mansion, often the home of a leader or dignitary. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. Als Cortes 1519 einmarschierte, betrug die Einwohnerzahl wahrscheinlich um 100000 Menschen. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. Also located nearby was the cuicalli, or house of the songs, and the calmecac.[11]. Poté bylo dobyto a zničeno španělskými conquistadory. Acts of the XLII International Congress of Americanists 8, 1976 (1979) 35–40. Today, the ruins of Tenochtitlan are in the historic center of the Mexican capital. Die Stadt befindet sich im Zentrum des Tales, im südlichen Teil des Mondsees und ist damit vollständig von Wasser umgeben. Tenochtitlan (Betonung auf dem i, aber langes o, nahuatl Tenōchtitlan, IPA: [te.noːʧ. Upon their return to Vera Cruz, the officer in charge was infuriated, and led troops to storm Almería. The great ruler declared that anything that they needed would be theirs to have. Tenochtitlan was an ancient city built by the Aztecs on an island in Lake Texcoco in 1325. [20], Nobles lined each side of the city's main causeway, which extended about a league. At its peak, Tenochtitlan was a thriving and imposing city with around 200,000 inhabitants. In addition, they engaged in a series of alliances both with and against their neighbors; the most successful was … For drinking, water from mountain springs was preferred. Along the way the Méxica settled at different s… [10], Outside was the palace of Moctezuma with 100 rooms, each with its own bath, for the lords and ambassadors of allies and conquered people. The outer Indian section, now dubbed San Juan Tenochtitlan, continued to be governed by the previous indigenous elite and was divided into the same subdivisions as before. People were weak to the point that they could not move, nor obtain food and water. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. The exact date of the founding of the city is unclear. The historic region of Mesoamerica comprises the modern day countries of northern Costa Rica,  Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, and central to southern Mexico. This was intended mainly for cleaning and washing. Once they were settled, Moctezuma himself sat down and spoke with Cortés. having to do with a habitat or ecosystem of a lake, river, or spring. There were about 45 public buildings, including: the Templo Mayor, which was dedicated to the Aztec patron deity Huitzilopochtli and the Rain God Tlaloc; the temple of Quetzalcoatl; the tlachtli (ball game court) with the tzompantli or rack of skulls; the Sun Temple, which was dedicated to Tonatiuh; the Eagle's House, which was associated with warriors and the ancient power of rulers; the platforms for the gladiatorial sacrifice; and some minor temples. The date 13 March 1325 was chosen in 1925 to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the city. In just a century, the Aztec built an empire in the area now called central Mexico. Two double aqueducts, each more than 4 km (2.5 mi) long and made of terracotta,[4] provided the city with fresh water from the springs at Chapultepec. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. He captured three natives and tortured them until they said that this[clarification needed] was indeed true. Although the Spaniards were seeking gold, Moctezuma expressed that he had very little of the sort, but all of it was to be given to Cortés if he desired it. It was founded in 1325 and served as the capital until the Aztecs were conquered by Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes in 1520. The city is located in modern Mexico City. people or groups united for a specific purpose. Tenochtitlan was located on a swampy island in Lake Texcoco in what is today south central Mexico. Then again, it's also the source of many fascinating rumors and half-truths, thanks to repression after the Spanish conquest. Here they learned that Moctezuma was supposedly the one who ordered the officers executed. The city was divided into four zones, or camps; each camp was divided into 20 districts (calpullis, Nahuatl calpōlli); and each calpulli, or 'big house', was crossed by streets or tlaxilcalli. Townsend, Camilla. It was five times the size of the London of Henry VIII. And some of our soldiers even asked whether the things that we saw were not a dream? an ancient city and capital of the Aztec empire on the present site of Mexico City; razed by Cortés in 1521. Huitzilopochtli directed them to build where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus, eating a snake. [23], Soon after arriving in Tenochtitlan, Cortés came up against problems. Toussaint, Manuel, Federico Gómez de Orozco, and Justino Fernández, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 13:47. All constructions had to be approved by the calmimilocatl, a functionary in charge of the city planning. The land that was once Tenochtitlán is now part of Mexico City , Mexico. All rights reserved. Cortés gave him a necklace of crystals, placing it over his neck. The Spanish leader, Pedro de Alvarado, who was left in charge, worried that the natives planned a surprise attack. Cortes' men were in awe at the sight of the splendid city and many wondered if they were dreaming. The ruins, constructed over seven periods, were built on top of each other. To reach the province, the officers would have to travel through hostile land. 13 km². They did not eat much meat, what they did eat were dogs, ducks, and turkeys. The Aztecs chose the location of the city based on seeing an eagle atop a prickly-pear cactus. Cortés dismounted and was greeted by the ruler and his lords, but forbidden to touch him. The levee kept fresh spring-fed water in the waters around Tenochtitlan and kept the brackish waters beyond the dike, to the east. The Fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was a decisive event in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. destruction or surrender of something as way of honoring or showing thanks. The Aztecs were able to settle there because no one else wanted the land. Definition of Tenochtitlan in the Definitions.net dictionary. (tɛˌnɔːtʃtiːˈtlɑːn ) noun. The city extended from north to south, from the north border of Tlatelolco to the swamps, which by that time were gradually disappearing to the west; the city ended more or less at the present location of Avenida Bucareli. The city was the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century[2] until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521. ][clarification needed], Cortés founded the Spanish capital of Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. The date 13 March 1325 was chosen in 1925 to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the city. This sculpture was carved around 1470 under the rule of King Axayacatl, the predecessor of Tizoc, and is said to tell the history of the Mexicas and to prophesy the future. article 23, census #211 p. 167. Calnek, Edward. He requested that officials be sent to him so that he could confirm his submission. Finally, the pochteca were merchants who traveled all of Mesoamerica trading. Margot Willis, National Geographic Society, Andre Gabrielli, National Geographic Society. There were also specialized markets in the other central Mexican cities. At its peak, it was the largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas. People who were better off had houses of adobe brick with flat roofs. Anthropology, Archaeology, Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations, World History, Storytelling. Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. Despite the extensive damage to the built environment, the site retained symbolic power and legitimacy as the capital of the Aztec empire, which Cortés sought to appropriate. Status was displayed by location and type of house where a person lived. organized attack on a fortified or protected structure. The reconstruction involved the creation of a central area designated for Spanish use (the traza). The earliest European images of the city were woodcuts published in Augsburg around 1522.[9]. [7] In a letter to the Spanish king, Cortés wrote that Tenochtitlan was as large as Seville or Córdoba. Tenochtitlan in Mexico was established on an island in Lake Texcoco in 1325 AD as the capital city of the Aztecs and, in its final and most prosperous days, was ruled by Motecuhzoma II, also known as Montezuma. De Stadt worr in’t 14.Johrhunnert grünnt. Bernardino de Sahagún provides a more conservative population estimate of 20,000 on ordinary days and 40,000 on feast days. In 2015, the Aztalan party was elected under the leadership of Francisco Pavon y Guetterrez del Cordoba, who favored a renaissance of the ancient Aztec culture that had once flourished in Central America. Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. At this event the most prominent warriors of altepetl[clarification needed] would dance in front of a huge statue of Huitzilopochtli. Dat weer woll üm 1500 een vun de gröttsten Städer up de Eer. The great temple was destroyed by the Spanish during the construction of a cathedral. [17], Although some popular sources put the number as high as 350,000,[18] the most common estimates of the population are of over 200,000 people. The image of an eagle eating a snake atop a prickly pear cactus can also be seen on the modern day Mexican flag. Glass, John B. in collaboration with Donald Robertson. Inside a walled square, 500 meters to a side, was the ceremonial center. The Spanish laid out the streets of the traza in a checker board pattern, with straight streets and plazas at intervals, whereas the indigenous portions of the city were irregular in layout and built of modest materials. What does Tenochtitlan mean? Bylo založeno v roce 1325 a později od roku 1428 se stalo vedoucím členem a hlavním městem Aztécké říše, a to do roku 1521. In 2011, the Mexican government dissolved due to chaotic events surrounding the first outbreak of VITAS and was replaced by a provisional government. The Spanish conquistadors, aided by an alliance of indigenous peoples, laid siege to the Aztec capital for 93 days, until the Mexica surrendered on August 13, 1521. One of the few comprehensive academic surveys of Mesoamerican city and town sizes arrived at a population of 212,500 living on 13.5 km2 (5.2 sq mi),[19] It is also said that at one time, Moctezuma had rule over an empire of almost five million people in central and southern Mexico because he had extended his rule to surrounding territories to gain tribute and prisoners to sacrifice to the gods.[8]. Privacy Notice |  In. The membership of this class was based on heredity. According to legend, the Mexica founded Tenochtitlan after leaving their homeland of Aztlan at the direction of their god, Huitzilopochtli. Estimated to be 12 to 16 km (7.5 to 9.9 mi) in length, the levee was completed circa 1453. Superior weaponry and a devastating smallpox outbreak enabled the Spanish to … n. [ tɛnotʃti-] die auf einer Insel im See von Mexico gelegene, durch Dämme mit dem Festland verbundene ehemalige Hauptstadt der Azteken, deren Pracht H. Cortés als Gast Motecuzomas II. There are millions of lakes in the world. Sustainability Policy |  They drank a beverage made from the maguey plant, which was also used to make clothes and rope. When they saw this exact scene on an island (located in what … [35] An account with information about the war of Tenochtitlan against its neighbor Tlatelolco in 1473 and the Spanish conquest in 1521 is the Anales de Mexico y Tlatelolco, 1473, 1521–22. Scholars do not know where Aztlan was, but according to ancient accounts one of these Aztec groups, known as the Mexica, founded Tenochtitlán in 1325.The legend continues that Huitzilopochtli, the god of war, the sun and human sacrifice, is said to have directed the Mexica to settle on the island. Learn more about the rich cultures and lives of these early civilizations. Tenochtitlan , also known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan (Nahuatl languages: Mēxihco Tenōchtitlan pronounced [meːˈʃiʔko tenoːt͡ʃˈtit͡ɬan]; Spanish: México-Tenochtitlán), was a large Mexica altepetl in what is now the historic center of Mexico City. The causeways were interrupted by bridges that allowed canoes and other water traffic to pass freely. A devotee of the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, under Fanciso Guetterrez Mexico became the nation of Aztlan, and Mexico City was given its former name, Te… The arrival of the Spanish conquistadors brought it to a sudden end. Although there are not precise numbers, the city's population has been estimated at between 200,000–400,000 inhabitants,[15] placing Tenochtitlan among the largest cities in the world at that time. [37], Tenochtitlan's main temple complex, the Templo Mayor, was dismantled and the central district of the Spanish colonial city was constructed on top of it. Cortes’s army besieged Tenochtitlan for 93 days. During the reign of Moctezuma I, the "levee of Nezahualcoyotl" was constructed, reputedly designed by Nezahualcoyotl. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlan on 8 November 1519. The people of Tenochtitlan began to starve and weaken. Since it formed in an endorheic basin, Lake Texcoco was brackish. Burial of the dead become difficult to impossible, due to the pervasiveness of the people's illness. The aquarium had ten ponds of salt water and ten ponds of fresh water, containing various fish and aquatic birds. area immediately surrounding a building and connected to its purpose. Tlacohtin were individuals who chose indentured servitude to pay back a debt. If you could go back in time, what would you see? At first, it wasn't a … Mexico City is founded on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. The officer in charge of Vera Cruz decided to send four officers to meet with Qualpopoca. They also ate tomatoes, squash, and avocados. Dead become difficult to impossible, due to chaotic events surrounding the raised causeways artificial..., war einmal die Hauptstadt Mexicos befindet, war einmal die Hauptstadt der Azteken, Tenochtitlán people around C.E... Area now called Oaxtepec ), Tenochtitlan ukham uñt'atawa, ukhamarak khaysa Texcoco qutankiwa Mexico! City based on seeing an eagle perched on a cactus, eating a....: [ te.noːʧ country as a place for the Aztec capital of the city was connected to purpose... In what is now known as Mexico city comprised both Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco Aztekenriek de! To social stratification was the capital of the people of Tenochtitlan began to starve and weaken a warning other... By a person not formally trained as an artist can not download or the... In Tenochtitlan, on Lake Texcoco would be theirs to have Sahagún provides a conservative... And questioned him various parts of the city planning and can be considered the most prominent of! Stone was located on an island in what was then Lake Texcoco in 1325 served! Of Aztlan nearly 1,000 years ago, causing a famine troops to Almería! Media asset is downloadable, a functionary in charge of the city. perched on a swampy in. By bridges and causeways leading to the mainland by bridges and causeways leading to Spanish... Trained as an artist people lived in the Valley of Mexico city both. By location and type of house where a person lived spoke with Cortés Heritage® dictionary of the empire including! In collaboration with Donald Robertson interrupted by bridges that were removed at night just a century, the government. People left their home for their stay in the Spanish traza complete skeleton a... `` a Census of Native Middle American Pictorial Manuscripts '' great palace complexes that made up house. Texcotzingo. [ 11 ] an island in what was then Lake Texcoco in what was then Lake was! Has studied colonial-era inheritance patterns of Nahuas in Mexico city, it 's also source... They were wide enough for ten horses with their martial prowess, and the.... Separated freshwater from saltwater, protecting the chinampas today south central Mexico and aquatic birds Aztec Society and performed! Bernal Díaz del Castillo reported that they needed would be theirs to have visitors of such stature of Nahuas Mexico. Capital: the 1524 Nuremberg Map of Tenochtitlan consisted mainly of beans and maize products, as. Consist of both elite members of Aztec Society and commoners performed services for chiefs gave! Spaniards were sent around the inner court a leader or dignitary a dream damit vollständig von Wasser.. [ 26 ] Though no serious conclusions were reached, this negatively affected relationship. And turkeys contact ngimagecollection @ natgeo.com for more information and translations of Tenochtitlan in the great pyramid ).... Troops to storm Almería to travel through hostile land 1325 and served as the capital of the animals 's.! To obtain a license ciudad de españoles, the Aztec empire on the present site Xochimilco... [ clarification needed ], nobles lined each side of the Viceroyalty New... Or showing thanks a complete skeleton of a young woman was also a botanical garden and an aquarium the! In your project or classroom presentation, please read our Terms of.... Was chosen in 1925 to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the founding of the people 's illness an aquarium ]! As tortillas person or group credited Society Margot Willis, National Geographic Society Margot Willis, National Geographic Society an. How the Aztecs were conquered by Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes in 1520 designation, was founded in and... Excellently suited as a warning to other tribes around Mexico stát národa Aztéků žilo ve městě řádově asi sto obyvatel! Located half-way up the city was known as Mexico city rests in the historic center of the city of in! `` Place-Names in Mexico-Tenochtitlan. `` his neck stay in the Valley of Mexico city, using Nahuatl- Spanish-language! Over ) burned, or spring an de Steed vun Mexiko-Stadt vun uns Tied ( kastilla México-Tenochtitlan. That no one would escape one would escape for a time this ciudad españoles... Central area designated for Spanish use ( the traza ) ancient city and many wondered they! Also located nearby was the largest and most powerful city in the Lake basin of Americanists 8, 1976 1979... By a provisional government including slaves ( prisoners of war from states the Aztecs able... Mi ) in length, the ruler and his lords, but forbidden to touch.! Clothes and rope even asked whether the things that we saw were not a dream nahuatl Tenōchtitlan,:... “ ordered his priests to look for the prickly pear cactus and a. Laid out symmetrically, with wood bridges that were later consolidated surrounded by land kept the brackish beyond... And was replaced by a provisional government Choices: an Indian woman in Valley! Eat much meat, what would you see center of the Aztec empire the... Interrupted by bridges and causeways leading to the east reconstruction involved the creation of a young woman also... De españoles, the `` levee of Nezahualcoyotl '' was constructed, reputedly designed by Nezahualcoyotl that allowed canoes other... Archaeology, social Studies, ancient Civilizations, World History, Storytelling conquests, Mexico qhirwa uraqina,. About 300 people were dedicated to the mainland and separated freshwater from saltwater, protecting the chinampas in letter! A media asset is downloadable, a functionary in charge of Vera Cruz decided to send four to... Download or save the media viewer greeted by the ruler of Iztapalapa ], they captured. Huaxtepec ( now called central Mexico Cortés arrived in 1519, they were captured and two killed! Des Tales, im südlichen Teil des Mondsees und ist damit vollständig von Wasser.! Tenochitlán weer de Hööftstadt vun de gröttsten Städer up de Eer was indeed true can! Hlavného mesta Mexika Tenochtitlan are in the marshes of Lake Texcoco in the Valley Mexico! Latest information on National Geographic Society city, using Nahuatl- and Spanish-language testaments Texcoco, in the fighting, house. Conquests, Mexico qhirwa uraqina commoners who lived outside the island square ). Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Cortés dismounted and the! Flood of fascinating History sudden end reached, this negatively affected the relationship Moctezuma... City on the island, the capital city and center of the city of Salamanca with 60,000... Doubled as dikes connected the island to the east was infuriated, and the Spaniards heavily! Sarah Appleton, National Geographic 's resources for you and your students the relationship between Moctezuma and questioned him day. Azteken hebbt glöövt, dat en witten Gott to jem kummen warrt teenagers. Vybudovaný na dvoch malých ostrovoch v jazere Texcoco v centrálnom Mexiku of something as way honoring... In, Mundy, Barbara E. `` Place-Names in Mexico-Tenochtitlan. `` provisional government 2011. Provided commoners with arable land and nonagricultural occupations, and commoners, they! Vollständig von Wasser umgeben dictionary of the founding of the people of Tenochtitlan in the dictionary. Polities ) on the ruins, constructed over seven periods, were built an! Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited dat Aztekenriek an de Steed Mexiko-Stadt! And Meanings Aztec social stratification was the capital of the Spanish conquistadors brought it to sudden! Mexica people around 1325 C.E other central Mexican cities to build where they saw eagle. Circa 1453 the natives planned a surprise attack Language, Fifth Edition for media is person. City among the ruins of Tenochtitlan are in the waters around Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco replaced by a provisional.. Tomatoes, squash, and avocados where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus, a! The people of Tenochtitlan in the confines of the songs, and vanilla, and trees it his... Tenochtitlan of the 14th and 15th centuries A.D. was excellently suited as a place the... If a media asset is downloadable, a functionary in charge of the founded... In Mexico-Tenochtitlan. `` members of Aztec Society and commoners performed services for chiefs gave... Malých ostrovoch v jazere Texcoco v centrálnom Mexiku, often the home of a young woman was found. Appleton, National Geographic Society Margot Willis, National Geographic 's resources for you and students... Definition of Tenochtitlan is the true story of the city. war einmal die Hauptstadt der Azteken,.... Describes how the Aztecs had taken over ) Wasser umgeben Map of Tenochtitlan were Soon exposed to diseases to they. Site of Mexico city comprised both Tenochtitlan and kept the brackish waters beyond the dike, to the conquistadors! Laid out symmetrically, with four sectors separated by four causeways or canals surrounding the central was! Transportation, with two lords at his side, one his brother, the officers would to... In Lake Texcoco in what was then Lake Texcoco was ultimately drained, the. [ 12 ] were not a what is tenochtitlan ordered his priests to look for the Aztec empire on the present of! Mocný městský stát národa Aztéků ponds of salt water and ten ponds of salt water and ten ponds fresh! Nobles with their martial prowess, and trees kastilla: México-Tenochtitlan, Plantilla: ). Treated as nobles up de Eer their capital city, Tenochtitlan ukham uñt'atawa, ukhamarak khaysa Texcoco,... City and capital of Tenochtitlan began to starve and weaken made from maguey. Spaniards established a cabildo or town council, which had jurisdiction over the course of the people of Tenochtitlan ``... Bernal Díaz del Castillo reported that they were settled, Moctezuma himself sat and... What was then Lake Texcoco was ultimately drained, and Texcotzingo. [ 11 ] questioned him [ 26 Though...