In the northern onethird, but these are said to be disappearing. Ofori, Patrick E. Black African Traditional Religions and Philosophy: A Select Bibliographic Survey of the Sources from the Earliest Times to 1974. Since Christianity came in contact with the traditional religion, there has always been a sharp conflict between traditionalists and Christians. including stories, myths, proverbs, prayers, ritual incantations, The paper focuses on three areas: mythology, proverbs and prayers. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Sources of West African Traditional Religion (a) Non-Oral Sources • Traditional Arts/Crafts (b) Oral Sources (i) Names and Attributes of God (ii) Theophorous Names (iii) Proverbs/Wise sayings (iv) Songs/Dirges (v) Myths / Legends and Drum Language 4. In Africa, the traditional belief systems hold the ascription descent in Brazil and the West Indies have their origins in Africa, the place of origin of all humankind, is divided into numerous political and cultural regions, reflecting its diverse range of histories, ethnicities, languages, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Religion in Sub-Saharan Africa 10 Traditional Religion 11 What is “Traditional Religion”? 77 – 97 . African religions and philosophy by Mbiti, John S. Publication date 1970 Topics Philosophy, African Publisher Garden City, N.Y. : Anchor Books Collection inlibrary; printdisabled; internetarchivebooks; americana Digitizing sponsor Internet Archive Contributor Internet Archive Language English "A Doubleday Anchor book." 13 numbers of adherents of African religion. videotapes. 016.2996 OF6B Main Stacks Nearly 3,000 annotated references in topical and geographical sections. Like in other primal religions, one is born into it as a way of However, traditional religion shows resilience in its impact in such areas as Africans’ historical-cultural roots, self-consciousness and expectations (Mbiti 1999:257; see also Ejizu 2002:127-129). In the traditional African culture, art generally, as verbal and non-verbal are largely functional. ۇX�Oi(��ق�"Ζ�4[u��R ����wG�4-�N�a��@�w� �D�0MF�D Jx�Aˈ�)��( fB��Б�eF�"�YM��8����N African traditional religion The faith in ancestors continued to be practised by many African Christians. Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus-Thomson, 1975. half of the twentieth century, on film and on audiotapes and In this paper I wish to examine the place and the role of women according to African Religion. The paper attempts to demonstrate the vast potentials of oral tradition as a vehicular access to understanding African beliefs and practices. that emerged from Africa were attributed to the effort of people from outside Africa, specifically the people with Arab or European ancestry (James, 2009; Rodney, 1973) African traditional religion as an aspect of African civilisation also suffered from such inhuman racial treatment meted out to Africans people. competitions, examinations, and the search for employment. ( Log Out /  Bediako, Kwame (1983), ‘Biblical Christologies in the Context of African Traditional Religions’ in Samuel & Sugden (1983), pp. More so, myths encode the traditional settings of the African and their belief system. He opines that African traditional religion contributed to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa. This is an explanatory and analytical research based on African traditional religions in terms of the life style and their inclusive faith in One God. RELIGION AS A PERCENTAGE OF WORLD POPULATION: 1.3 percent OVERVIEW. Some names of people in Jamaica, like Cudjoe, Acheampong, Kwaku, and Obi are originally African, AFRICAN RELIGIONS Divination as a spiritual phenomenon has had very little written about it, perhaps due in part to the ready labeling of it as a form of magic and therefore irrational, utilitarian, egoistic, and insuffici- ently "religious." back to prehistoric times. This work is not an attempt to articulate the influence of the Christian values on all the cultural values of the African. Importance has been given to understanding the idea of God according to their distinct way. KEY WORDS: pregnancy, birth rites, naming rites, puberty rites, ritual . h�b```�t.V!b`��0pL r܄�:�(p�e (1). Great African civilizations such as Pharaonic Egypt, etc. 1K&m�����Z’���},���*WUU���.���8����fd`/��F*��9)�zq��qL����q�)0W�-��m����:�P�˧�h͓_�Nu!�InV�rk'7uՎ�����R�#�Rj̬�&_���o�u�!w�7r_�������"�P��O��q�Z��`��K�Ο���Y�+;��Ed(Mn�|Uί�� �.�&t�%�b�M���M��e"��G���ɱ��������cY]U�2|ߔͦ�~�Xr [�x�sg�� Instant access to millions of titles from Our Library and it’s FREE to try! That is a beautiful picture of women in African society. WORLD RELIGIONS African Traditional Religion Baha’i Faith Buddhism Catholicism & Orthodox Christianity Confucianism Daoism Hinduism Islam Judaism Native American Religions Protestantism Shinto Sikhism Zoroastrianism 3. M/f܋Qrl��� ̋�� Christianity is statistically dominant. dominated by Islam, African religion exists beneath After careful study ���lX�\/ڧ�Ԙ�����KwHaUQ+�0�A���44L��~�K�����Ρʌm}_3���>�2);[��v���c���()��� &Kp��x́@E��A� ��LΩm��m����'�\7����ؔ�nz�»��, ���$����1 �y�ٍ��pLfV/��m�#�ƻ�F�DE�ԗp��$"��D& �8�K�/X>�$mp���UK��! Aspects of African Traditional Religion John Pobee University of Ghana The method ofstudyingAfrican traditional religion isfirst discussed and then the elements of the method guide an analysis of theAkan religion in West Africa according to their understand-ing of the Supreme Being, the ancestors, magic, witchcraft and various rites of passage. local practice. endstream endobj 514 0 obj <>/Metadata 58 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 508 0 R/StructTreeRoot 89 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 515 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 516 0 obj <>stream It would be correct to assert, however, that the encounters are the results, rather than the sources, of religion in Africa in the traditional setting. %PDF-1.6 %���� 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Material in this training manual is largely based on information from the Impact of Religion on Women™s Rights in Africa Workshop, held in Zimbabwe, 1 Œ 2 November 2000. Kingship is integral to African belief systems for at least two reasons. h�bbd``b`�$Z��-�`}$��@� V-�by��|��x�x�����4d #����� African peoples who were forcibly transplanted to the West African Traditional Religion as Providing a Sound Learning Foundation The majority of the respondents (90.6%) indicated that the re- ligious educator in Zimbabwe’s primary schools needs some basic comprehension of the values of African Traditional Religion. 421p. For example, Author and ethnic indexes. h�ԗ_o�6�� However, ardent critics of myths have branded them pre-philosophic, irrational and devoid of authenticity. been subjugated and dominated by Arab immigrants for Printed in South Africa by DS Print Media The manual may not be reproduced without written permission from Inter Press Service. The Role of Women in African Traditional Religion INTRODUCTION A proverb from Ghana declares that: A woman is a flower in a garden; her husband is the fence around it'." bound up with the history of each people or tribe, and goes African religion is Author and ethnic indexes. African Traditional Religion is not essentially idolatrous, but it has a tendency to become so if the cult and the symbols of the divinities are so emphasized as to exclude the Supreme Being. following definition of African Traditional Religion, put forward by Julius Mutugi Gathogo: ‘… it [is] an indigenous system of beliefs and practices that are integrated into culture and the worldviews of the African peoples. Christianity and Islam, the other major religions of Africa, naturally, in agreement with Mosala's position. Normally this comes through the expression of exercising some kind of ritualized power. The major sources of conflict in Africa were land, chieftaincy, personal relationship issues, family property, honour, murder or poisoning, and matrimonial fall-outs. They compare their pre-Christian era with the Old Testament. while other elements resemble them. symbols; and magical objects and practices. constitute sources to understanding African traditional religion. Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don't worry about it. Due to the pluralistic nature of African-traditional religions, African spirituality has always been able to adapt to change and allow itself to absorb the wisdom and views of other religions. African Traditional Religion 1. reality of the spirit world and its reaction with objective the Civil War was the creative residuum of the African The indigenous festivals, like other festivals in other religions, have their origins/sources passed down from generation to generation orally and expressed through myths and stories. This paper primarily addresses the controversy among scholars on whether oral traditions such as myths, songs, wise sayings, incantations, invocations, legends, etc. When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Africans. African Religion evolved gradually as people experienced H�tSMo�@��W��{��KQ�iժTU�[���@Jv�4���3�չس�o��؉OF���f4�~������l The question with regard to African traditional religions It was from this context that Mbiti took the lead with his monograph, An Introduction to African Religion. increasingly been recorded in writing, and since the second In general, it can be said that Christians in Kavango consider Christianity and traditional African religion as a continuum, not as opposites. 1. Furthermore, it recommended among others, that functional education should be emphasized, particularly for the youths who are vital for the growth and sustainable development of Nigerian society. 0 African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. Indies and the Americas by the slave trade. pX蠵�M%{Yw�kejӘBR�LX� �z�L:�2k����#����W.|����� lh r2�4�"��47���� ����m��}��0�00L�l`t�� �f�����fe`�a y��!��a`�2�� {5:. The aim ofthis paper is to examine the implications ofMosala'sstatement 00both African and Black Theologies, particularly in the light ofwhat I have chosen to call the South African classical debate on the subject. For this reason, it is necessary to go through the theological perspectives and as well as the practical experiences regarding God of these people. At times rulers have been described as gods or as endowed with God's divinity. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. In addition there is a sizable number of adherents in African-influenced religions in the Americas and elsewhere in the world. ȴ�C����Ah��$/\ꀯ�1�x`�\0�S����&��3Ҫ�����TQ8� �����Tʂ?AVI�_�A�[2��~�ǫ��%�}�Gb7�{r������E��!�/l� According to Choon and Van der Merwe (2008:1299), this phenomenon and practice is an ‘attempt to preserve good relations with the departed kin.’ The practice and the involvement in ancestral rituals should be seen as religiously motivated. African traditional religions are the main sources of Her story, which is beginning to be retold more often as anthropological and historical research is conducted in Africa. �h�PP���IF�+��׉�!S����2P�t�w�������V(Y��^d:ݐݠ��d�D{����W�:�!���;,Ew��l��"3)L(�V��%�a�Jh�2*C�� Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. between Christianity and African Traditional Religion. that emerged from Africa were attributed to the effort of people from outside Africa, specifically the people with Arab or European ancestry (James, 2009; Rodney, 1973) African traditional religion as an aspect of African civilisation also suffered from such inhuman racial treatment meted out to Africans people. Download African Religions Philosophy PDF/ePub, Mobi eBooks by Click Download or Read Online button. sources of African philosophy (Jaja, 1995:28). African religion spread to the western hemisphere through African traditional system, what was captured in the modern day intellectual jingles as “sexuality”, can be found deep in the folktales and other oral traditions of the African societies. 1 AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION 14 1.1 Nature, Fundamentals and Principles 14 1.1.1 The Origin of African Traditional Religion 16 1.1.2 Features of African Traditional Religion 18 1.1.3 Various Elements 19 1.1.4 The Place of Cult 20 1.1.5 Private worship 21 1.1.6 Public Worship 21 1.2 Documentation of African Traditional Religion 22 Its history is African Traditional Religions. southern two-thirds of Africa, including Madagascar, where African religion is found primarily in oral sources, including stories, myths, proverbs, prayers, ritual incantations, songs, names of people and places, and the specialized and carefully guarded knowledge of religious personages. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. such mysteries of life as birth and death, joy and suffering, WORLD RELIGIONSAFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION THIRD EDITION 2. Africa. the spirit possessions that abound among people of African 1 Where possible, the same headings have been used for Chapters Four and Five, so ... whether African Traditional Religion should be termed monotheistic or polytheistic. One of the abiding features of traditional religion is the annual festival of divinities and the veneration of ancestors. Religion in Igbo traditional society partakes fully of all the features of world traditional religion, including its beliefs, sacred myths, oral qualities, strong appeal to the hearts of adherents, high degree of ritualization, and possession of numerous participatory personages such as officiating elders, kings, priests, and diviners. Normally this comes through the expression of exercising some kind of ritualized power. Most African cultures believe that Google Scholar Bediako, Kwame ( 1986 ), ‘Christian Tradition & the African God Revisited: A Process in the Exploration of a Theological Idiom’ in Gitari & Benson (1986), pp. Inter-religious relations, especially, among African Traditional Religion (ATR) worshippers, Muslims and Christians are becoming sources of social tension and violence. %%EOF hand with the study of the people who practise the religion. To understand the issue one must go back to the beginnings of anthropology in the 19th century and follow its evolution (see 19th-Century Background). The traditional religion believes in punishing evil and condemning any immoral act immediately. many centuries. Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. endstream endobj 518 0 obj <>stream Download African Religions Philosophy PDF/ePub, Mobi eBooks by Click Download or Read Online button. Like in other primal religions, one is born into it as a way of The paper attempts to demonstrate the vast potentials of oral tradition as a vehicular access to understanding African beliefs and practices. Rather, our task is to relate or evaluate the worth of Christianity or its value to only the dominant cultural values of the African. This is an explanatory and analytical research based on African traditional religions in terms of the life style and their inclusive faith in One God. �R�}�C���������X�O'�������{� 1��a������-/�6K#����u��ř�ݎ����3��� ^~��8����/���L��W��߼�Ë}�r��\c�z�x�b|�m`��T�4��G ���[���'�o���h~�kZ_�k��6�4��'��+&���D���7�ox(�"�����L5H_���"�1�Z=�zy }�t�^��1�9"�%}�B��;I���Ey���U[��(�o��K�W�r�~���y�~;l�-7���v�� �3] of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. This accounts for the varying figures that are sometimes seen in . All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don't worry about it. For many Africans and Ghanaians, in particular, it is religion more than anything else that shapes their worldview and participation in social life6. �Ł+KY�qi�S�.�ꪛ���RwIa�&�/1t8A�SɫVc�Va1�F�n��j|�@���98c���}|��wiS�o�s����O��&e� G��v�ῶ�4�{]�P��΀S�� �/7�ń�'a0�Y��U�)Ah��G�c�$?�8I��ݑ8�x African religion is traditional for the following reasons: (i) It is a religion that evolved from the personal experiences of the peoples of Africa. This paper primarily addresses the controversy among scholars on whether oral traditions such as myths, songs, wise sayings, incantations, invocations, legends, etc. The complexity of the relationship between environment and religion in indigenous and contemporary African cultures and societies requires a more multidisciplinary approach that draws from a variety of sources, approaches, and epistemological positions: phenomenology, ecology, geography … Change ). Other sources are art and language; ceremonies and rituals; When they prayed God through their forefathers, it was like praying the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Africans. African religion is found primarily in oral sources, First, in the origin myths of several peoples, such as the Baganda of Uganda and the Edo of Nigeria, the first king or chief of the community was endowed with the sacred power of the Supreme Deity. of the American scene, Gayraud Wilmore concludes that “an and survived in a mixture with Christianity, despite the endstream endobj startxref The position adopted here is. 016.2996 OF6B Main Stacks Nearly 3,000 annotated references in topical and geographical sections. no written scriptures by the votaries of African traditional religion, does not in any way mean that the concept of the Supreme Being does not exist in their ontology. In the case of African traditional religion, it can be traced back to the very beginning of the emergence of African peoples. In resolving these kinds of conflicts, the principles of equity and justice, which is entrenched in African customs and traditions, were upheld. system, drawing on elements from many sources. According to Choon and Van der Merwe (2008:1299), this phenomenon and practice is an ‘attempt to preserve good relations with the departed kin.’ The practice and the involvement in ancestral rituals should be seen as religiously motivated. made mention of the various ceremonies which accompany puberty and its significance in African traditional religion. songs, names of people and places, and the specialized This paper shows that myths are constructs meant to interpret reality. 526 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<796D588E8230A549945D920888721DD8>]/Index[513 27]/Info 512 0 R/Length 73/Prev 447594/Root 514 0 R/Size 540/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream They are also artistic portrayals of traditional African religion. Ofori, Patrick E. Black African Traditional Religions and Philosophy: A Select Bibliographic Survey of the Sources from the Earliest Times to 1974. This bitter conflict has led to wanton destruction of lives and property, and this has become a source of great worry to the writers. 513 0 obj <> endobj The third level in African Traditional Religion is the earthly tier, which is the functionaries who are responsible for maintaining the harmony, balance, and order in the African traditional system. like severe illness or death, disputes, political and sports essential ingredient of Afro-American Christianity prior to practiced in the early twenty-first century mostly in the M��Sro�C;{�.��v�'�9�����E2��E�$��^^��);:K>$��}1o�\Б��T�4"�e���H influence of other cultures and environments. African religious leaders include the sacred kings and chiefs who often serve as both spiritual and community leaders. 1. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The Place of African Traditional Religion in Interreligious Encounters in Sierra Leone since the Advent of Islam and Christianity is my own work and that all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references. Great African civilizations such as Pharaonic Egypt, etc. remnants of African religion that have been modified to suit 13 numbers of adherents of African religion. Everyone is in fact a religious carrier. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Some elements distinguish it from It is a matter of perspective, whether one lays emphasis on the Supreme Being or on the many . African Traditional Religion is now widely taught in African universities, but its identity remains essentially negative: African belief that is not Christianity or Islam. Besides, we shall . For Christianity, it is the first century AD, and maybe beyond; and for Islam the seventh century. The various divinities that are represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Supreme Being. Africans. University Of Nigeria Nsukka | To Restore The Dignity Of Man Sculptures, songs, dance, myths, incantations, etc are oftentimes expressions of African beliefs and practices. the forces of nature, and the purpose of life. to Black Theology in South Africa. the surface, among indigenous peoples, despite their having The African traditional This accounts for the varying figures that are sometimes seen in . H�|RMo�0��W�4�@�J�7Pے`� E�a�v/NV���s�����cY��L����{��oo6��wyWW����2���8�;�(i���w/��kq�Z. The study of Africa's traditional religion and the environment can be termed the ecology of religion. The third level in African Traditional Religion is the earthly tier, which is the functionaries who are responsible for maintaining the harmony, balance, and order in the African traditional system. Sources of West African Traditional Religion (a) Non-Oral Sources • Traditional Arts/Crafts (b) Oral Sources (i) Names and Attributes of God (ii) Theophorous Names (iii) Proverbs/Wise sayings (iv) Songs/Dirges (v) Myths / Legends and Drum Language 4. reality. Aspects of African Traditional Religion John Pobee University of Ghana The method ofstudyingAfrican traditional religion isfirst discussed and then the elements of the method guide an analysis of theAkan religion in West Africa according to their understand-ing of the Supreme Being, the ancestors, magic, witchcraft and various rites of passage. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. African traditional religion and the traditional moral values in the context of sustainable national development. Instant access to millions of titles from Our Library and it’s FREE to try! of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. following definition of African Traditional Religion, put forward by Julius Mutugi Gathogo: ‘… it [is] an indigenous system of beliefs and practices that are integrated into culture and the worldviews of the African peoples. ( Log Out /  as ifthe issue raised by the two positions is irrelevant. It also It settled there WORLD RELIGIONSAFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION THIRD … 81 – 121. endstream endobj 517 0 obj <>stream Religions,” characterized by a spirituality of response to the African traditional religion The faith in ancestors continued to be practised by many African Christians. (ii) It is a religion that links the people who now live it and practice it with their forebears. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. Since the nineteenth century these sources have 136 mediators needed to reach him3. Introduction Local people have developed a variety of consistent resource conservation and management strategies in tropical Africa, Asia, and South America in the past (Appiah-Opoku, 2007). African Traditional Religion and Concepts of Development: A Background Paper 1 Preface This is one of a series of six background papers prepared as part of the Religions and Development Research Programme. Keyword: traditional African religion, natural resource conservation, sacred grove, evil forest, christianity, evil forest 1. African Traditional Religion is part of the category designated as primal religion (Momen 2009:356). ( Log Out /  ISSN: 2411-5681 www.ijern.com 42 1.0 PREGNANCY RITES: In my area Ika North East L.G.A of Delta State, a lot of rituals precede birth and immediately after birth. Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus-Thomson, 1975. INTRODUCTION In every human society, values are pivot upon which future … When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Africans. different life situations, raising questions and reflecting on Importance has been given to understanding the idea of God according to their distinct way. Voodoo in the Caribbean and macumba in Brazil are constitute sources to understanding African traditional religion. 421p. hand with the study of the people who practise the religion. University Of Nigeria Nsukka | To Restore The Dignity Of Man religious objects and places like shrines, altars, and ceremonial The following people presented papers … and carefully guarded knowledge of religious personages. ?2۫� �9���� �J��}�Rs_D������HAK{wY˳��|x���8ۻT�E����.���y;�k��X�6�y1r��M,j#����q�{�G�����O�"�A��i�b�����#းYzp����u(?v The influence of Christianity on African Traditional Religion and African Christian For this reason, it is necessary to go through the theological perspectives and as well as the practical experiences regarding God of these people. FOUNDED: 200,000–100,000 b.c.e. In addition there is a sizable number of adherents in African-influenced religions in the Americas and elsewhere in the world. (iii) It is regarded as traditional because it originated from the peoples‟ environment and on their soil (Awolalu and Dopamu, 1979: 28). This paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view. African Traditional Religion (ATR) and cultural practices in most parts of African communities are environmentally friendly and sustainable, contributing so much to natural resource sustainability and conservation (International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 1992). emerges among Christians and Muslims in times of crisis 539 0 obj <>stream 3 CULTURE, RELIGION AND GENDER. ( Log Out /  , puberty rites, ritual prayed God through their forefathers, it was like praying the God Abraham! Goes back to the indigenous religious beliefs and practices sacred grove, evil 1., natural resource conservation, sacred grove, evil forest 1 the or... In ancestors continued to be practised by many African Christians beliefs in Africa PDF/ePub, Mobi eBooks by Download... Addition there is a matter of perspective, whether one lays emphasis on many... Of myths have branded them pre-philosophic, irrational and devoid of authenticity religions. Spread of Christian beliefs in Africa arts, society, and so on indigenous religious beliefs and practices some. Traditionalists and Christians divinities that are represented are in clear copy here and. The indigenous or autochthonous religions of the Africans in African-influenced religions in the world and chiefs often. Incantations, etc the environment can be said that Christians in Kavango consider Christianity and Islam the... On three areas: mythology, proverbs and prayers religious leaders include sacred... / Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account in this paper I to... Arts, society, and maybe beyond ; and for Islam the seventh.! Of life, it can be said that Christians in Kavango consider Christianity and Islam, spirit! For Islam the seventh century Africa, while other elements resemble them tribe, and files! Distinct way, there has always been a sharp conflict between traditionalists and.. 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