by anybody at ANU SRES. Suited to drier and even semi-arid conditions, but rapid growth with 500 mm rainfall or more. Yield about 15 tonnes dry matter per hectare per year on one-third tree cover to two-thirds grass cover; recovers quickly from complete defoliation and heavy grazing. Community Education & Extension Support. research 175, 8-11. adversely affect the digestibility of dry matter and utilization How long and lignin) and poor in sugar and protein. Australia, it has sometimes been claimed, has an efficient agricultural system. Yields of 50 tonnes per hectare per year after five years have been reported (Lamb 1979). Trees are dioecious. the selection of species. Lilly Pilly Lilly pilly is a group of Australian native plants, which range from shrubs to trees, and boast lush foliage that can help create a great screen or shade. by seasonal dry conditions because of their more extensive root Trees need to be well spaced for best growth. http://www.dnr.qld.gov.au/resourcenet/fact_sheets/pdf_files/T37.pdf, Managing native fodder trees Qld DNR fact sheet, http://www.dnr.qld.gov.au/resourcenet/fact_sheets/pdf_files/T37.pdf, http://www.dnr.qld.gov.au/resourcenet/fact_sheets/pdf_files/T30.pdf, Fodder for thought - ACTANC 95. Can be grazed within two to three years of establishment; very palatable (Douglas & Hart 1978). erosion. by no grazing, requiring fencing. Turnbull, 1985, 'Fodder Tree Production Under Cutting For 5 Years in Canterbury Hill Country', in Fodder Trees - a summary of current research in New Zealand, eds L.A. Logan & J.E. Production from some, such as leucaena can be less than a year, that of tagasaste, two or three years, and others around the same time. to make use of dry season pastures (Abel et al. Evergreen trees are simply the most popular landscape trees in Australia including selections of Acmena, Elaeocarpus, Ficus, Magnolia, Syzygium, Tristaniopsis and Waterhousea. show good growth characteristics: many fodder trees fit well within this criteria; cause minimal soil disturbance: fodder trees need no soil disturbance after establishment; prevent nutrient loss from the soils: because of their permanence, fodder trees help to prevent nutrient losses; have little or no need for irrigation: fodder trees can tap deep water tables out of the reach of short-rooted pastures. McLeod, C.C. (Boland 1986). tree and shrub species. Willows: Salix spp, especially the weeping willow, Salix babylonica, and the hybrid Salix matsudana x alba: Valued for their spring and summer foliage. There is a small movement in Australia interested in the use of trees for fodder. Tolerate wide variety of soils. Some of them can grow to an enormous size, so choose a tree that suits your garden and enjoy the shade. A large number or top-feed, they are an effective insurance against seasonal Some trees, such as the carob, require possibly seven or eight years before the pods and seeds are freely available. Whilst these plants will tolerate coastal locations it is advisable to check on suitability for each situation especially if you are in the front line of salt spray. to reduce the harmful effects of rising watertables. Red Cedar. Nauni, Indian Society There are over 150 species in the genus. Long-lived species - expected life of about 50 years. Foliage contains 18% protein. Typical feed problems can be managed with fodder most suited for the landowner and the local conditions. And of course, there are numerous native species that are edible, such as some of the acacias (Sheppard 1985), the brachychitons, cassias, the casuarinas and other chenopods. They can provide shade and shelter for stock. Some species in dry or marginal areas may need a little irrigation only until they are established; provide yields of edible components comparable to pastures: most trees and shrubs suitable for fodder have yields reported to be several times higher than pastures grown in comparable areas; have the ability to fix nitrogen to reduce the dependence on artificial fertilisers: most legumes, such as tagasaste, and some other species such as casuarinas, fix atmospheric nitrogen by use of bacteria and convert it into nitrates that the plants can use, removing all dependence on nitrogenous fertilisers; have a high protein content in their edible portions: as many of the trees and shrubs suitable for fodder are legumes, the protein content will be high - often around 20 to 25 percent, comparable to lucerne; provide their feed in a short time: the possible yields from fodder trees and shrubs could be three, or five or more times the yield per year than from pastures. Red Cedar (toona ciliata) is a … They bear scented white blossoms as well as fruit, and have a lovely, rounded shape to about 3m high. In some places, like the Northeast, however, this grazing method became taboo in the later part of the 20th century due to overgrazing and environmental concerns. Fast growing and long-lived. Yemane (Gmelina arborea), Dead finish (Albizia basaltica), Some fodder species also have timber potential. still growing timber (Lake 1997). Lake, J. agroforestry system include Siris (Albizia lebbeck), Forest Good fodder trees should produce large crowns Can be grazed within their first two or three years (Batten 1985). popularity (every time we've removed it, people have complained within 24 Unlike pastures, there are few limits for growing at least some species of trees or shrubs for fodder. Spedding, C.R.W., Walsingham, J.M. Propagated from seeds or from suckers. have various incriminating factors, for example, Populus spp. He has lopped 600 trees since May, and now only has three weeks of cutting left. Oates and Clarke (1987) suggest that early settlers found that lopping the scrub for emergency feed was often all that kept them going during especially dry seasons. Schmidt, C., Stirzaker, R. and Thorburn, P. (1997). In Agroforestry Systems : a new challenge. The potential of some of the semi-arid regions could match the productivity of many more fertile, moister land. And why shouldn't we provide a plentiful supply of fresh, highly nutritious and palatable feed for the animals, to take some of the burden out of farming? To plant a larger area requires a livestock trading enter- prise that can take full advantage of an out-of-season feed supply. Minimum tillage livestock agriculture holds promise in Australia as well as the rest of the world as the future way livestock farming must go. Yet the carrying capacity of a part of the Atacama Desert is twenty sheep or goats per hectare (Felker 1981). Agroforestry Systems 2, 131-163. Radcliffe, Crop Research Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Christchurch NZ. The trees A good choice is the Viburnum tinus, a small leaf evergreen that grows to about 3.5 metres. Radcliffe, Crop Research Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Christchurch NZ. providing an alternative source of income for graziers. Adelgids and honey fungus can be a problem for these trees. are often inaccessible to grazing animals, and increased labour Yield about 15 tonnes dry matter per hectare per year on one-third tree cover to two-thirds grass cover; recovers quickly from complete defoliation and heavy grazing. In recent years, this traditional use has been complemented Grows in a variety of soils. Looking at the overseas experience, it appears there is great potential in Australia for the use of fodder trees for livestock production. The importance of trees and shrubs as animal siris (Albizia procera), Tipuana (Tipuana tipu), Dordrecht, Suited to drier and even semi-arid conditions, but rapid growth with 500 mm rainfall or more. 1997). Our best stories in your inbox Subscribe to Rural RoundUp: Stories from rural and regional Australia, every Friday. Canberra, ACIAR. Sheppard, J.S. TREES late Founder Dave Deppner, a former farmer himself, would be pleased to see many of his ideas on livestock management taking root. Fodder trees take from two or three years to about seven or eight years before they will provide sufficient high protein pods, seeds or foliage. CSIRO Div forestry Canberra ACT. Propagated from seed or cuttings. Many require intermittent periods of heavy grazing followed Have the South African graziers got it all wrong? These trees can thus grow on nitrogen-deficient soils. 1985, 'Observations of fodder trees, and research needs', in Fodder Trees - a summary of current research in New Zealand, eds L.A. Logan & J.E. Saltbush: Atriplex nummularia: Able to survive conditions that prohibit the growth of most other plants, such as low rainfall, saline, and poor soils. Trees and shrubs as sources of fodder It is a desert covered with a salt crust up to one metre thick. The following Products][Non-Wood Bell, C. 1985, 'Tagasaste Pilot Study at Wanganui', in Fodder Trees - a summary of current research in New Zealand, eds L.A. Logan & J.E. Most of the trees Many contain tannins and other astringent compounds, which It grows on rocky or stony outcrops, or clefts of rocks where no grasses could ever get a hold (Duke 1981). the flowers, fruits or pods, which can be more valuable than foliage, supplementary feed supply for times of environmental stress, careful For instance, if one desires to grow a gum tree, there are close to a thousand species to choose from ranging from sub-alpine snow gums to spectacular flowering gums from Western Australia or rainbow gums that thrive in the wet jungles of northern Australia. of the main objectives can be shown as follows. During the dry season or southern summer, paddock feed usually This tree needs a sunny, protected position and well-drained, rich soil. Lamb, R. 1979, World Without Trees, Magnum Books, London. Tolerate wide variety of soils. named on the page is likely to fail, and the SRES webmaster doesn't want Ideal for soil stabilisation work (Batten 1985; Douglas & Hart 1978; McLeod 1985). Their foliage also generally has You have been warned. Propagated from seed or cuttings. Tannins in tree fodders form the most common hours), but is presented AS IS - attempting to contact any individual And the habitat of the carob tree? The best place for trees. As tagasaste roots more deeply than lucerne, it may have a greater tolerance to drought. With over 400 tree varieties for review, the Treefinder app enables you to conveniently browse and compile a list of trees suitable for a number of common landscaping uses - from attracting birds to creating a formal screen or hedge. Foliage is available during times of minor drought. Angie Thomas, Horticulture Consultant to Yates, recommends planting these trees if you live in some of Australia's warmer climates. glands and death of newborn animals (Gogate and Dhaundiyal 1984, In Root systems and high-N litter can help improve soil structure Evergreen tree; fast growing under most conditions, reaches its full potential in three to four years. Susceptible to more than 3-4 degrees C of frost. Case Study: Eucalyptus maculata in the lower Hunter Valley NSW. (1986). Valuable in soil stabilisation work (Duke 1981; Felker & Bandurski 1979). Managing native fodder (Abel et al. J.W. Rainfall can be as little as 120 millimetres of winter fall per year, yet production there can be as high as several tonnes of dry matter per hectare. 1982, 'Tree Lucerne - A Useful Forage/Fodder, Shelter Species', in New Zealand Tree Crops Association, Papers Presented at the 8th Annual Conference, Christchurch, 1982, New Zealand Tree Crops Association Inc. Davies, D.J. Leucaena: Leucaena leucocephala: Tall shrubs, prolific growth in warm regions; sensitive to frosts. For best harvesting, you'd probably need to mow fairly short underneath the trees just before nut drop. Propagation is by grafting or from stratified seed. There feed resource. In the spring it rewards you with fragrant purple blossoms, and … they often have lower energy value than herbaceous plants due digestible or nutritious to meet all of an animals' needs in isolation. Reid, R. and Wilson, G. (1985). The pods of the carob, not the leaves, are consumed. Tolerant of frosts. Many species may become environmental weeds. Propagated from cuttings, yielding copious foliage after two or three years; yields of 200 kgs per tree per year; foliage contains 17% protein. an increasingly popular fodder species, contains tannins and planting millions of trees across the developing world since 1989. latent internal damage may be caused (Negi 1986). grown in paddocks. Edible species of trees and shrubs will make the difference between survival and disaster, for the farm, the farmer, the farming community and the economy of the country. 1997). diagram illustrates the advantage of such trees in evening-out 1985, 'Fodder Tree Research at Whatawhata Hill Country Research Station', in Fodder Trees - a summary of current research in New Zealand, eds L.A. Logan & J.E. Or, perhaps it will convince even more graziers that, in the years following the current drought, and the next, and the next, that really, after such bad conditions on the land, there is no money to invest in this form of fodder. 1992). They’re an example for the rest of us, really. Kurrajong is regarded in Australia as one of that country’s most valuable fodder trees. & Cannell, G.H. Legumes, producing their own nitrogen - ideal for impoverished soils, but require free-draining soils. with CSIRO Tropical Agriculture, has identified a number of Australian Many can be propagated from seed, or from cuttings, a process which minimises establishment costs considerably (Felker 1978). Criteria should apply to those trees that will replace pastures, so a comparison of their worth can be evaluated (Felker & Bandurski 1979). Pods contain 16% protein. the fodder shortage occur at a certain time of the year? Most feed types are not sufficiently Are present-day livestock farming methods lucrative? A valuable leguminous tree used for animal foliage, shelter and soil improvement. Golden chain tree These small, fairly erect trees put on a stupendous display of pendulous blossoms that look like wisteria flowers, only in golden yellow. Varieties of Leucaena have been developed that do not contain the previously high levels of mimosine, a depilatory when fed in excess to cattle. Again, do as you wish, but I won't be descriminating against oak trees in our pastures. 1985, 'Fodder Tree Studies in South Canterbury', in Fodder Trees - a summary of current research in New Zealand, eds L.A. Logan & J.E. It is a hardy plant that can easily shoot up to 20 feet in a single growing season. trees. Low rainfall areas with annual, irregular rainfall of less than 200 millimetres per year can grow some of the chenopods, or carobs, which will yield several tonnes of dry matter per hectare every year. increasing their ability to digest fibre, and thus enable livestock (Formerly Birdwood Nursery) 71 - 83 Blackall Range Rd Woombye QLD 4559. Dual purpose trees for agroforestry. Yet each year those depleted soils require more and more input of labour, and capital, and fertilisers, to maintain the production levels of previous years (Douglas & Hart 1978). Grazing livestock in woodlands is commonly practiced the world around. They’re tough, adaptable trees, and they thrive in our soils and with the fierce Australian sunshine while producing amazing food. Leucaena leucocephala, Digestibility : Although sometimes higher in protein, The many different aspects associated with Yet, this is what has happened with much of Australia. Tagasaste has more productive potential than lucerne (Oates and Clarke 1987). No grass grows in the Atacama Desert in Chile. Felker, P. & Bandurski, R.S. in those areas with a pronounced dry season. In trials in Western Australia, in deep sand and with 530 mm rainfall, tagasaste planted at 900 trees per hectare produced three tonnes of dry matter per hectare. Council on Tree and Nut Crops Inc. Lismore, NSW, Australia. The role of woody perennials in animal agroforestry. Certified temperate pasture seed (seed produced and processed to meet quality scheme requirements) contributes to the productivity of pasture based livestock … Fodder trees and shrubs Radcliffe, Crop Research Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Christchurch NZ. Agroforestry is the use of trees that give high feed yields all year round, every year, even where grasses cannot grow. Prefers well-drained, deep soils, but quality is immaterial. Best of all, you can enjoy this spectacle no matter where you live, because there are varieties suitable for tropical, temperate, or cooler areas. It takes about the same time to improve pastures on moderately fertile soils. The aim of planting fodder trees is to overcome Require about 5% male trees for pollination. The answer is not to eke out the most from every millimetre of rain, but to allow trees to tap the vast reserves of water deep below the surface. Plato, in his Critias and Timaeus, cites. particular feed shortage and the agroecological zone. where to place trees and farm plantations on farms. Trees can grow branches, which will extend over the fences and into the pasture to provide shade. is needed. and fertility. OAK TREES. And in Africa, trees have been used for centuries as a source of feed for animals. Agroforestry in Australia Viburnums have been popular in Australia for decades as a screening plant. Tannins For large fields, you can place a few fenced-off patches of trees within pastures or you can have separate blocks of various forage trees. Susceptible to more than 3-4 degrees C of frost. Radcliffe, Crop Research Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Christchurch NZ. Fast growing, maximum yield if kept well grazed and small, but trees should be well spaced. Trees for the Future Founder, Dave Deppner, visiting the livestock of a smallholder farmer in Honduras. For the bees, birds and fodder include tagasaste (with mycorrhiza) but note it’s best trimmed regularly. The selection of the appropriate species requires and exotic tree species whose leaves, pods and flowers could provide Mature trees are tolerant of frosts to -10 degrees C. Renowned for soil stabilisation work. Under these circumstances the value of trees and shrubs is considerable Negi, S.S. (1986). Even in recent decades, South Africa has been developing trees of the species. Honey locust: Gleditsia triacanthos: Grown for high yield of pods. White Pine ( Pinus strobus) One of the faster growing pines, this favorite has soft bluish-green needles, and are, of course, evergreen. 1985, 'Results of Tagasaste Trials and Plantings of Fruit, Nut and Pod-bearing Trees from 1977-85 at Lincoln', in Fodder Trees - a summary of current research in New Zealand, eds L.A. Logan & J.E. Used extensively in permaculture as a multipurpose tree. Khosla, P.K., Puri, S. and Khurana, D.K., eds. Trees for Saltland: a guide to selecting native species for Australia. or better, for individual site conditions. What Pastures Suit my Livestock?Pastures used on small farms should match the environment (rainfall, elevation, temperature), soil type and livestock enterprise. Mulberries might well do a good job - and they're certainly fast-growing. The meagre rainfall, just a few millimetres a year, does not promote the growth of grasses anyway. species selection is essential for successful fodder production. which Lowry has identified with potential for this dual purpose Point Lonsdale Pier, Victoria. They formed an integral part of the farming system (Lamb 1979). Trees are kept low, and grazed directly. Acacias and casuarinas too are suitable for supplementary fodder (Oates & Clarke 1987). to hear about such failures or entertain any communication about updating of Has the New Zealand experience with tagasaste been a complete disappointment to the farmers who have taken the initiative and planted such trees? careful consideration. by their exploitation in wetter areas for protein-rich browse Legumes, growing well in impoverished soils. (1997). Many of these are dry country species able to endure drought and saline soils, such as the chenopods (saltbush and bluebush). ACT, Rural Industries Research and Development Corp. Boland, D.J. above livestock reach, that are capable of severe lopping during Needs reasonable soils. The beautifully illustrated Diggers Club Diary features a week to a page, seeds to sow each month, blank pages for seasonal observations, and handy pockets for your seed packets and plant labels, while The Diggers Calendar showcases stunning garden photography to inspire you throughout the entire year. 6th Conference of the Australasian Most of the trees are legumes and several are known to promote pasture growth when grown in paddocks. In Australia, in some parts of the semi-arid regions of the continent, there are vast tracts of chenopods-plants that grow in soil that is too infertile, and too saline to permit almost any other type of vegetation. The Maples are hardy, deciduous trees favouring well-drained soils. Propagated from grafted stock. Although there may be wild claims about the potential and yields from some fodder trees (Oates and Clarke 1987), there is no doubt that, because trees are deep rooting compared with grasses, they will tap minerals and water deep in the soil. Poplars: Populus spp: Grown under conditions similar to willows. Often called browse But ... where are the trees? Yields of up to 50 tonnes per hectare per year can be expected under a variety of conditions. Yields not only have to be maintained, they should, ideally, be increased, to provide food for our increasing population (Douglas & Hart 1978). Propagated from grafted stock. especially if the species is deciduous "(Torres 1989). Livestock will need a variety of feed. and their leaves, etc. They can tolerate dry periods. Drought resistant, these grow in low rainfall areas, although an even rainfall of 100 mm per month provides best growth. Agroforestry is, in my opinion, the only alternative to pastures and grasses. Many of the trees that are planted as sources of fodder make ideal windbreaks; they modify the microclimates beneath their canopies; they reduce water loss from the soil, and reduce evaporation from nearby fields, and from dams; they reduce soil erosion; they lower the temperatures the animals must endure. Agriculture is an ongoing process. One which is valued is the acacia, Acacia albida. By selecting desired size, foliage, and a few categories, Treefinder opens up a world of possibilities. Propagated from seed or from cutting. Yields of 50 tonnes per hectare per year after five years have been reported (Lamb 1979). In Peru, thousands of hectares of another species of prosopis. Grazing lands in most parts of the world have suffered in a similar way. The use of trees and shrubs as a source of feed for livestock is not new. 1987, Trees for the Back Paddock, Goddard & Dobson. 1979, 'Uses and Potential Uses of Leguminous Trees for Minimal Energy Input Agriculture', Economic Botany 33(2) 172-182. So why shouldn't countries like Australia make those barren soils productive within only a few years. and New Zealand. 1984). Planting trees just outside the fence around the pasture boundary is usually adequate. of tree and shrub species have also been documented as useful Lambeck, R., Prinsley, R., Prosser, M., Reid, R., Revell, G., Propagated from seeds or from suckers. shrubs can be summed up as : Clearly, though a highly valuable resource as and the nitrogen fixing abilities of many shrub and tree legumes. Kluwer Academic Publishers. only from tree fodder but also from other feed ingredients. Does Foliage contains about 23% protein (Davies 1982; Davies 1985; Rumball & Cooper 1985). Is there a limit, then, to where trees for fodder can be grown? Felker, P., Clark, P.R., Osborn, J.F. purposes, particularly around farm houses and buildings but also Helping gardeners make the right tree selection first time every -time is the premise behind Fleming’s Top10 Trees Guide. Require about 5% male trees for pollination. purpose selected trees must be combined to ascertain the species The feed yield from fodder trees - even grown under adverse conditions and in poor soils - can match, and often exceed, that from pastures grown under good conditions (Lamb 1979). Slow growing, producing pods in 5-8 years; long-lived, about 100 years. agroforestry system where the trees provide a significant contribution List of some fodder & Hoxey, A.M. 1981, Biological Efficiency in Agriculture, Academic Press, London. fodder is accentuated in harsh environments, where limitations But then, some pasture improvement programs can take up to fifteen years to achieve! Pods contain 16% protein. Tall growth forms may require more labour intensive management. Australian Government Publishing Service Canberra ACT. Introduced pastures are dependent on a good reserve of water, minerals and nutrients in the soil, and the addition of fertilisers before they will grow (Douglas & Hart 1978). or seasonal drought, or is the shortage due to the quantity or to their lower digestibility. Foliage contains 22% protein; yields of three tonnes dry matter per hectare per year in semi-arid areas in low rainfall and poor soil, much higher yields under better conditions. This article was published in the science journal Australian Biologist Volume 11 Number 2, June 1998. Deciduous, providing foliage in spring and summer. Torres, F. (1989). Have seen some big old standard apple trees that met the criterion of a shade tree - had one in the middle of the hayfield on the farm I … The type of fodder agroforestry system established this species can lead to shedding of hair coat of animals, excessive ...there were also many other lofty cultivated trees which provided unlimited fodder for beasts. higher levels of tannins and other astringent compounds (Lefroy This web page is part of a web site that is no longer actively maintained